Becasue it is not "Cable TV"; its "Internet".
For CABLE TV, everyone connected to the medium through a cable, is getting the same data (and enjoying it ;-) ) Its a broadcast. You want to add another node, you just attach yourself to the medium and start receiving, or probably add a repeater/booster if you are far.
Once you start talking about Internet, you are requesting information from servers and getting that specific data. Every different person is sending different requests and thus getting appropriate data. In other words, every connected user has a different session, unlike CABLE TV, where everybody is getting the same information. (Thats another thing, you are watching a particular channel ;-) )
So, in order to make sessions, addressing is needed. This will be a "LIVE" IP address that your ISP will give you. (You can use any IP address for your internal network, but IPs on Internet are all unique). If u have more than one IP addresses given to you by your ISP, you can use a hub for those IPs. If u have only one LIVE IP, neither there is a need for a hub nor adding it will it help extending the network by adding more nodes than the number of supplied LIVE IPs.
Now, further, by using those LIVE IPs, (one or more), you may make your own private networks. Thats your choice. And for that you need a ROUTER or a PC for Internet Sharing.
Regards, ~ Jagmeet ~