How does Broadcast Storm occur?

Todd tried to explain for one instance (with switch loop) in his 4th edition, page 320, Figure 7.7, but faild to explain.

Anyone could elaborate? Thanks!

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They, broadcast storms and L2 loops, can be two very different things.

Example of broadcast storm: Circa 1991/92. Doom version 1.0 is released. Because they weren't thinking, the game used broadcast frames to talk to one another. This meant that EVERYONE on the logical IP subnet had to process the frame (then throw it away since the vast majority of the PCs weren't playing doom. This was when 486-66 were the normal PCs. The rate at which the Doom game machines generated frames *killed* the other PCs. This is a broadcast storm.

Example of L2 loop. Ethernet frames do not have a place for Time-to-live. This means that they simply do not die if there is a layer two loop. Ethernet frames also do not have loop detection built in. So if you create a L2 loop, the frames will go around and around and around and never die. You will quickly find out that 10Mbps Ethernet in fact, can do 1.5MBps!

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