Cisco Certification FAQ Part 1 Introduction (3:03:02)

Archive-Name: Certification/Cisco/Frequently Asked Questions Version: 03:00:00 Part 3 of 3 Posted: Weekly (Thursday) Title: Part 3 - Workshop
Index:-
Part 1 - Introduction ===================== 10.0 Statement of objectives 11.0 Administrivia 12.0 What is Cisco accreditation 13.0 Testing 14.0 Learning resources 15.0 Getting practical experience. 16.0 Dealing with Cisco. 16.1 Cisco Connection Online Account 17.0 Links 18.0 Credits
Part 2 - Certifications ======================= 21.0 Q: What accreditation is offered? 22.0 Q: What is the Network Installation and Support stream? 23.0 Q: What is the Network Installation and Support (WAN) stream? 24.0 Q: What is the Network Engineering and Design stream? 25.0 Q: What is the Network Engineering and Design (WAN) stream? 26.0 Q: What is the Communications and Services stream? 27.0 Q: What are Specialist Designations? 28.0 Q: What are the Cisco Partner Specialisation Exams? 29.0 Entry Level CCNA, CCNA(WAN), CCDA 210.0 Journeyman Level CCIP, CCNP, CCNP(WAN), CCDP 211.0 Professional Level CCIE 212.0 Specializations 213.0 Spare 214.0 The Lost Exams Home 215.0 Cisco Certification Renewal Policy 216.0 Beta Exams
Part 3 - Practical Issues ========================= 31.0 Q: What is involved in a Home Laboratory? --------------------------- 31.0 Introduction 31.1 Q: What should I look for in a router? 31.2 Q: What should I look for in a switch? 31.3 Q: What sort of Lab is required for the CCNA? 31.4 Q: What sort of Lab is required for the CCNP? 31.5 Q: What sort of Lab is required for the CCIE? 31.7 Q: What would be a good lineup of equipment for a router lab? 31.8 Q: Where's the best place to buy cheap lab equipment? 31.9 Miscellaneous questions.
32.0 Router basics. ------------------------ 32.1 Software 32.2 Password recovery 32.3 Connecting routers together
33.0 Switch Basics. ------------------------
34.0 Internet Basics ------------------------ 34.1 Subnet Masks 34.2 CIDR and VSLM 34.3 What are the unallocated IP address blocks? 34.4 Which RFC 1918 address block should I use?
35.0 Access Lists --------------------- 35.1 What are access lists and why should I care? 35.2 Access list basics 35.3 How do I apply access lists? 35.4 Where do I apply access lists? 35.5 How are access lists evaluated?
36.0 Links --------------
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31.0 Home Laboratories ========================== 31.0 Introduction --------------------- The following is really a discussion of what would be good for the exams listed in the various sections. It is difficult to be too specific about equipment types as what is going to end up in a home lab will be more often a compromise between what is available at a particular time, the price you are willing to pay, what you wish to achieve and the timeframe in which study will undertaken. I hope that this will start discussion of what is really required.
31.1 What should I look for in a router? -------------------------------------------- 31.1.1 Q: What type of LAN port(s) is the router fitted with? A: LAN ports are either ethernet or token ring. Ethernet is preferred because most exams are ethernet based and most user equipment is ethernet based.
31.1.2 Q: What type of WAN ports is it fitted with? A: Serial ports are preferred as they are easiest to connect together. Integrated CSU/DSU ports are also easy to connect together. ISDN is
difficult to connect together without either access to two ISDN services via a telco or an ISDN simulator. 31.1.3 Q: What version of IOS is it fitted with? 31.1.3.1 Q: What version of IOS is it fitted with? A: Cisco has a whitepaper: "Cisco IOS Reference Guide" available on the Cisco website for further information. Dated but highly recommended.
31.1.3.2 Q: Are there other router operating systems than IOS? A: Some models such as the 700 series acquired by purchase of the company which developed them and the products incorporated into the Cisco product line. These companies used proprietary operating systems which are not compatible with IOS.
31.1.3.3 Q: What is the current version of IOS? A: The newest version of IOS is 12.2.x 31.1.4 Q: What feature set is fitted? A: Cisco IOS is sold with various capabilities. Most routers come with IP only, which is the minimum. The other feature sets for a particular model router enable greater functionality such as IPX/appletalk in a desktop feature set and security/ firewall in others. Full information on the IOS, feature set and router model is available on the Cisco site. You need a login to access this feature. Consultant access is easy to obtain and suitable to access this feature. Cisco has a whitepaper: "Cisco IOS Reference Guide" available on the Cisco website for further information. Dated but highly recommended.
31.1.5 Q: What quantity of Flash Memory is fitted? A: IOS is saved into flash memory. Newer releases and enhanced feature sets usually require more flash memory. This may entail purchase of additional flash memory or booting the IOS from a TFTP server if your intention is to upgrade IOS but not to add flash. This requires additional DRAM though, but this is usually cheaper than flash.
31.1.6 Q: What quantity of RAM is fitted? A: Many routers come with minimum RAM.
31.1.7 Q: What type of memory is fitted? A: Many memory types are used in various models, with the option of parity and non-parity memory. Many router memory types are industry standard and in a Lab situation can be enhanced with standard memory.
31.1.8 Q: Where can I find information on a router I an considering? A: CCO has documentation on most equipment current and obsolete.
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31.1.9 Q: I cannot find the model on this list? A: When looking for information look also at the end of life and end of sales section at the bottom of the catalogue page.
31.1.10 Q: What is End Of Sales (EOS)? A: This is the last date that the equipment was for sale.
31.1.11 Q: What is End of Engineering (EOE)? A: This is the last date that engineering work will be/ was performed.
31.1.12 Q: What is End Of Life (EOL)? A: This is the last date that support will be/ was available from Cisco.
31.2 What should I look for in a switch? -------------------------------------------- 31.2.1 Q: What type of LAN port(s) is the switch fitted with? A: switches have 10 or 10/100 LAN ports. Uplink ports may be 100 Mb/s or 1Gb/s and capable of FEC or GEC.
31.2.2 Q: What type of operating system is installed? A: Most of the early Cisco switch models were acquired by purchasing other companies and their product lines. These have been rationalized to two types of operating system, the Cisco IOS based switches and the "set" based operating system of the 5000 series switches.
31.2.3 Q: What version of IOS is it fitted with? 31.2.4 Q: How much memory is fitted? 31.2.5 Q: 31.2.6 Q:
31.3 Q: What sort of Lab is required for the CCNA? ------------------------------------------------------ 31.3.1 Q: What is the critical requirement of the CCNA exam? A: The critical requirement is to gain access to a router and switch for familiarization with router IOS and the switch OS
31.3.2 Q: What is the Hardware required? A: A router and a switch. The switch may be optional. The use of two routers will allow demonstration of routing table updates.
31.3.3 Q: What is required of the routers? IOS Support RIP, IGRP, IPX Feature set Desktop feature set (IP, IPX and Appletalk). IP only may be used, but IPX cannot be configured. Memory To suit feature set Serial ports One serial, two preferred. Integrated CSU/DSU also useful. LAN Ports At least one ethernet per router.
31.3.4 Q: What is required of switches? A: One 1900 series switch. Enterprise feature set required.
31.3.4 Q: Where can I find configuration exercises? A: Most certification guides offer configuration exercises.
31.3.9 Q: What is a good lineup of equipment for the CCNA? A: 800 series is *okay* for the CCNA. 2500 series is better. One will get you by, two is better. Although you need to learn the material, buying a switch for CCNA is overkill. (JRE)
31.4 Q: What sort of Lab is required for the CCNP? ------------------------------------------------------
31.4.0 Q: What are the elements of the CCNP? A: There are four exams for the CCNP qualification. Each have different demands on equipment.
31.4.1 Q: What is required for the BSCN Exam? ----------------------------------------------- 31.4.1.1 Q: What is the critical requirement for the BSCN exam? A: The critical element is that the IOS on the router used supports EIGRP, OSPF and BGP routing protocols.
31.4.1.2 Q: What is the hardware required? A: Minimum Three routers more useable five routers.
31.4.1.3 Q: What is required of the routers? IOS Support EIGRP, OSPF and BGP4 routing protocols. 12.X.X preferred. Feature set IP only. (Lower model routers, 1600/1700 series may require IP+) Memory Enough to support IOS and feature set employed. Serial ports Two on each router, One router with four serial is desirable. LAN ports Ethernet or Token Ring. At least two with ethernet is desirable.
31.4.1.4 Q: Where can I find configuration exercises? A: "Building Scalable Cisco Networks" Paquet and Teare, Cisco Press has a configuration in appendix "H".
31.4.2 Q: What is required for the BMSCN Exam? ------------------------------------------------ 31.4.2.1 Q: What is the critical element of the BMSCN exam? A: The critical element is the configuration of switches, trunking and HSRP
31.4.2.2 Q: What hardware is required? A: An IOS based switch, 1900 series, 2900XL series A set based switch, 5000 series or model 2900. A Router capable of ISL and 802.1Q trunking.
31.4.2.3 Q: What is required of the routers? A: One Fast ethernet port compatible with ISL and 802.1Q
31.4.2.4 Q: What additional equipment is required?
31.4.3 Q: What is required for the BCRAN Exam? ------------------------------------------------ 31.4.3.1 Q: What is the critical element of the BCRAN exam? A: To configure remote networks using ISDN (BRI and PRI), Analog MODEMs and Frame/ serial links.
31.4.3.2 Q: What equipment is required? A: Routers of the 1600/1700 series, 2500 series with ISDN BRI and serial ports. One router with at least four serial ports for use as a frame switch. Routers with PRI interfaces. ISDN BRI Simulator or two ISDN services. Analog line simulator or two telephone lines. MODEMS.
31.4.3.3 Q: What is required of the routers IOS Support 12.X.X preferred. 12.2.x preferred for ISDN PRI Feature set IP only. Memory Enough to support IOS and feature set employed. Serial ports Two on each router, One router with four serial is desirable. Support for async. Desirable. ISDN ports Two routers with ISDN BRI ISDN ports Two with ISDN PRI desirable, but not necessary. LAN ports Ethernet or Token Ring. At least two with ethernet is desirable.
31.4.3.4 Q: What additional equipment is required? A: IDSN BRI simulator OR two ISDN services Analog line simulator OR two analog telephone lines.
31.4.3.5 Q: Where can I find configuration exercises? A: BCRAN certification guides.
31.4.4 Q: What is required for the CIT Exam? ---------------------------------------------- 31.4.4.1 Q: What is the critical element of the CIT exam? A: To faultfind the configurations of the earlier exams.
31.4.4.2 Q: What is the hardware required? A: The equipment from the previous three exams. A freeware sniffer package would also be useful.
31.4.9 Q: What is a good lineup of equipment for the CCNP/ DP? A: At least three 2500 series, and a CatOS switch if you can get your hands on one (they're pricey). (JRE)
31.5 What sort of Lab is required for the CCIE? --------------------------------------------------- 31.5.9 Q: What is a good lineup of equipment for the CCIE? CCIE: Link to Cisco's CCIE Lab equipment list.
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for Routing and Switching (JRE)
I would also suggest the link
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Look for Lab White papers (dmann)
31.7 Q: What would be a good lineup of equipment for a router lab? ---------------------------------------------------------------------- "J. R. Ford" 31.7.1 CCNA 800 series is *okay* for the CCNA. 2500 series is better. One will get you by, two is better. Although you need to learn the material, buying a switch for CCNA is overkill. CCNP: At least three 2500 series, and a CatOS switch if you can get your hands on one (they're pricey). CCIE: Link to Cisco's CCIE Lab equipment list.
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for Routing and Switching (JRE)
I would also suggest the link
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Look for Lab White papers (dmann)
31.7.2 What would be a good lab? ---------------------------------- NB: the following is for discussion only.
31.7.2.1 Q: What routers are required? 1 Off 700 series router. 2 Off 2514 or equivalent (2501 would do, but 2514 better) 2 Off 2503 or equivalent (Could be token ring 2504) 1 Off 2520 or four serial port router. 1 Off 262x series router. (replace 2520 series with a NM-4A/S module)
Note: A 3600 series router would be a useful replacement for the 262x series router if configured with a fast ethernet module, multiple serial module, BRI and a PRI modules (3/4 modules, not all required simultaneously). Cost is the main problem though!!!
31.7.2.2 Q: What switches are required? 1 Off switch 1900EN or 2900XL 1 Off switch 5000 series or 2900 series (Non-XL)
31.7.2.3 Q: What additional equipment is required? A: Cisco serial crossover cables, (or DCE/DTE pairs) IDSN BRI line simulator (Or two ISDN services) Analog line simulator (Or telephone lines) For Ethernet Ethernet patch cables, crossover and straight through. Miscellaneous hubs. AUIs for routers without RJ45 connectors. For Token ring MSAU to connect workstations/ Routers Media Filters (9 Pin "D" to shielded RJ45) Cables Token Ring NICs.
31.8 Purchasing equipment ----------------------------- 31.8.1 Q: Where's the best place to buy cheap lab equipment? A: IMO, start with eBay. (JRE)
31.9 General Questions -------------------------- 31.9.1 Q: What is the main requirement for CCNA/ CCNP study? A: The main requirement is for a router to use Cisco IOS. These are 800 series and above. The 7xx series do not use IOS and are not useful. An IOS image that supports IPX might be useful, but IP may be all right.
31.9.2 Q: Is token ring equipment useful? A: Token ring equipment is cheap particularly 2502, 2504, 2512 routers. Usefulness depends on application.
31.9.3 Q: What are useful models of equipment? A: The most useful models are those with at least one synchronous serial interface. (805, 1005, 1601, 2501, 2503, 2514 etc) Almost as useful are those with integral CSU/DSU, provided they are obtained in pairs or an external CSU/DSU is obtained for use with a router with a serial interface.
32.0 Router Basics ====================== As with all things Cisco there is much information available on the Cisco connection online site. This includes hardware and software manuals for many
models of Cisco equipment, including some not currently supported. This also
includes wiring diagrams of Cisco cables. With any router query, look on the
Cisco site first. 32.1 Software ----------------- 32.1.1 Q: I have blown my software on my router - How do I get another copy. A: Cisco sells the operating software independent of the hardware. Expect to be asked to purchase a new copy. Look to auction sites such as eBay as an alternative. It is advised to back up the IOS to a TFTP server before experimenting with it.
32.1.2 Q: The software feature I want is not supported on my router. A: Cisco sell their operating software in various feature sets. Check the software manual for your router to see if the features are supported. Check eBay etc to purchase an enhanced version if not.
32.2 Password Recovery -------------------------- Q: I have lost/ never had the password(s) for my router, how do I recover from this situation. A: Search CCO -
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for "password recovery" and model of equipment.
32.3 Terminals ------------------ 32.3.1 Q: What do I require to connect my PC to the console port for router configuration? A: You require a computer with a free serial communications port, a suitable RS232 cable and a suitable terminal program. Quite a few routers and switches use a RJ45 rollover cable and an appropriate adaptor (DB9/25) to connect the computer serial port to the console port on the Cisco equipment. It is not unknown for older equipment to use other cable standards.
32.3.2 Q: I find that I am unable to use the break key to interrupt the router bootup sequence. A: There is a well-known problem with various hyperterm implementations not correctly implementing break. Download an update from hilgraeve, use terminal from Windows 3.1 or search the web for an alternative terminal emulator. You can download a number of alternatives for free e.g Tera Term Pro.
32.4 Q: How do I connect two routers serial ports together. --------------------------------------------------------------- 32.4.1 Several third party cable manufacturers provide cables to connect serial ports together with one cable. Usually they must have the same connector on both pieces of equipment. Findable with a websearch.
32.4.2 If a direct connection cable is not available, connect together two
cables for a WAN connection such as V34, X21. You require a DTE and a DCE cable to suit the appropriate routers.
32.4.3 One cable end is DCE and a serial clock must be sourced from that end. The other end is the DTE end and uses clocking from the DCE end for data transfer. Use the clock rate command on the router DCE port(s). (Internal strapping in connector identifies to the router whether the attached cable is DTE/DCE)
32.4.4 CSU/DSU may be connected together using:-
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32.5 TFTP Servers --------------------- Q:What is a Good TFTP server? A: There are various TFTP servers available on the Web. Cisco, 3Com etc offer them and there are several others. Solarwinds offer a multithreaded TFTP server as a demonstration.
32.6 Q: How do I find out what type of cable is connected to a serial port? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A: show controllers serial (x) will give the type of cable, DTE/DCE, and clockrate.
33.0 Switch Basics ====================== As with all things Cisco there is much information available on the Cisco connection online site. This includes hardware and software manuals for many models of Cisco equipment, including some not currently supported. This
also includes wiring diagrams of Cisco cables. With any switch query, look on the Cisco site first.
33.1 Q: What versions of IOS are available? 33.2 Q: What are the advantages and disadvantages of IOS? 33.3 33.4
34.0 Internet Basics ======================== 34.1 Subnet masks --------------------- 34.1.1 Q: What are subnet masks? A: An IP address consists of a network portion and a host portion. The routing process works on network addresses rather than host addresses Subnet masks are used to extract the network address from an IP address.
34.1.2 Q: How are subnet masks represented? A: Most subnet masks are a 32 bit binary number with bits to be matched indicated as one or zero in the appropriate location. These masks may be represented in any number system but usually dotted decimal format with each group of eight bits converted to the equivalent decimal number separated with a decimal point.
34.1.3 Q: What is a conventional all ones subnet mask? A: The number 255.255.255.254 is an all ones mask - all bits to be matched except the last.
34.1.4 Q: Are inverted subnet masks used? Inverted masks are also used where the bit zero is the bit to be matched and the bit 1 is the bit to be ignored. Access lists and OSPF use inverted masks. 0.0.0.1 - all bits are to be matched except the last.
34.1.5 Q: What is the slash "/xx" notation A: This is a shorthand way of representing the number of network address bits in the subnet mask. E.g 192.168.9.65 /26 represents a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192 Caveat: Cisco use this differently in the router set up script when
booting with no configuration. It represents the number of bits in excess of the default address class mask. E.g 192.168.1.0 /3 -> 8 subnets on a class "C" network. E.g. 255.255.255.224
34.2 CIDR and VLSM ---------------------- 34.2.1 Q: What is CIDR? A: CIDR is a suite of techniques increase flexibility in the use of IP addresses
34.2.2 Q: Why is CIDR required? A: With the shortage of IPv4 addresses, organisations are no longer allocated IP addresses on the traditional address class boundaries. For example, a block of 64 addresses from a class "B" ISP block may be allocated to an organisation. That organisations network address consists of both IP address and subnet mask, both of which must be sent in route updates.
34.2.3 Q: What is route aggregation/
summarization? A: To limit the number of routes required in internet routing tables, aggregated addresses are used. The ISP providing the service may advertise the /28 subnet mask of the above example as part of the Isp's /16 (if lucky enough to have a whole /16 block) This leads to the extensive use of variable length subnet masks.
34.2.4 Q: What happens if route aggregation/
summarization is not carried out correctly? A: One or more networks may be unreachable.
34.2.5 Q: What is VLSM? (Variable Length Subnet Mask) A: VLSM is required when the number of host addresses/ networks are not the same in all the subnets in a block of IP addresses. It is used in association with an IP address to decide which network an address belongs to.
34.2.6 Q: Can I use VLSM in my network? A: VLSM is a technique, which can be used by an organisation to allocate IP addresses flexibly within its own networks.
34.2.7 Q: What is the advantage of using VLSM? A: Classfull address allocation requires a consistent subnet mask. VLSM allows the address blocks to be sized to suit what the network is used for. E.g Maximize available addresses in subnets which require a large number of hosts and minimize addresses on WAN links (/30 mask).
34.2.8 Q: What do I require to use VLSM? A: The choice of the appropriate routing protocol. RIP version 1 and IGRP are "classfull" and do not support VLSM. RIP version 2 and most other modern routing protocols can be used.
34.2.9 Q: What is the difference between CIDR and VLSM Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR) uses a number of techniques to obtain flexibility in the allocation and use of IP address blocks. VLSM is one technique used to achieve this objective.
34.3 Q: Which are the unallocated IP address blocks? -------------------------------------------------------- There are several unusable address blocks 0.0.0.0 (If you see this in a routing table, it indicates a default route) Has the meaning "This network" 127.0.0.0 Loopback (typically 127.0.0.1) 255.255.255.255 Broadcast - not allowed for general propagation Used by DHCP to find address server
The following may also not be useable:- 128.0.0.0 - 128.0.255.255 (One Class "B") (First class "B") 191.255.0.0 - 191.255.255.255 (One Class "B") (Last class "B") 192.0.0.0 - 192.0.0.255 (One Class "C") (First class "C") 223.255.255.0 - 223.255.255.255 (One Class "C") (Last class "C")
The following are known as the RFC 1918 addresses and are reserved for private use, and are not to be forwarded outside the organisation using them without translation to a proper assigned address. 10.0.0.0 1 Class "A" Block (End 10.255.255.255) 172.16.0.0 16 Class "B" address blocks (End 172.31.255.255) 192.168.0.0 256 Class "C" address blocks (End 192.168.255.255)
The following allocation may not be covered by an RFC 169.254.0.0 - Reserved by IANA for Automatic Private IP Addressing. 169.254.255.255 As a result, Automatic Private IP Addressing provides an address that is guaranteed not to conflict with routable addresses. (Win 2K) For use on Windows boxes if an address cannot be obtained via DHCP. Apple Macintosh computers may also use this address range.
34.4 Q: Which RFC 1918 address block should I use? ------------------------------------------------------ A: RFC 1918 recommends using the 10 block as it is the most scalable when adding many subnets. If you do not wish to subnet, the 172 and the 192 block can be used. Refer RFC 1918. Effectively the 172 and 192 blocks are pre-subnetted. (14/254 networks)
35.0 Access Lists ===================== 35.1 What are access lists and why should I care? ----------------------------------------------------- 35.1.1 Q: What are access lists and why should I care? A: Access lists are a means of controlling traffic flow within a network of Cisco routers. Once a network is established and traffic is flowing it is found desirable to control what traffic is flowing and its ultimate destination. Access lists offer basic security along with traffic control.
35.2 Access list basics --------------------------- 35.2.1 Q: What types of access lists are there? A: The two basic types of access list are Standard and Extended.
35.2.2 Q: What is the form of a Standard access list? A: access-list [number][permit/deny][source address][mask]
35.2.3 Q: What does a standard access list block? A: A standard access list permits or denies all traffic from the address(es) specified in the statement.
35.2.4 Q: What is a typical use of a standard access list? A: Where it is desirable to
35.2.5 Q: What is the form of an Extended access list? A: access-list [number][permit/deny][protocol][source address][mask] --> [destination address][ mask][port]
35.2.6 Q: What does an extended access list block? A: As little or as much as is specified in the access list statement.
35.2.7 Q: Can Standard and Extended access lists be mixed? A: Both types can be mixed.
35.2.8 Q: How many access lists can I have? A: One per interface, per protocol, per direction.
35.2.9 Q: What is the mask? A: The mask allows either a single or a group of addresses to be combined in an access-list statement.
35.2.10 Q: What are the components of the mask? A: The mask is an inverse mask where 0 requires a match and a 1 represents a don't care
35.2.11 Q: What is the difference between the network mask and the access-list mask? A: The network mask requires the subnet bits to be used in order from right to left in order. The wildcard mask allows any bit to be used, irrespective of bit order.
35.2.12 Q: What is the best way to derive the mask? A: The best way is to convert the addresses to binary and derive the mask from there. Binary representation of the numbers will give a better appreciation of the numbers being operated on.
"If you start from a false assumption, you may end up at a strange destination"
35.2.14 Q: What are words with special meaning in access lists? A: < host > has the meaning of mask 0.0.0.0 applied to the address supplied. < any > has the meaning of any address.
35.3 How do I apply access lists to an interface? ----------------------------------------------------- 35.3.1 Q: How do I apply access lists to an Interface? A: Access lists are applied to a selected interface using the access-group statement. config-if access-group [number][direction]
35.4 Where do I apply access lists? --------------------------------------- 35.4.1 Q: Where should I apply a standard access list? A: A standard access list filters on source address only and should be applied at a destination.
35.4.2 Q: Where should I apply an extended access list? A: An extended access list can use both source and destination address, protocol and port to filter and can be placed at the source.
35.4.3 Q: I am in the real world and how does this differ? A: In the real world you are faced with the problem that you do not have full control over source and destination. The type of access list and where it is placed will depend on a number of factors including physical location, security, maintainability, traffic generated and company policy.
35.5 How are access lists evaluated? ---------------------------------------- 35.5.1 Q: How are access lists evaluated? A: Access lists are evaluated sequentially from top to bottom. The packet is tested against the access list statements until a match is made and the action specified in the statement is performed. Once a
match is made, no tests are made against the remaining statements.
35.5.2 Q: What happens when processing reaches the bottom of the list? A: If testing reaches the bottom of the list and a match has not been made, there is an implicit deny all which causes the packet to be rejected.
35.5.2.1 Q: How else could you describe this? A: Once a valid access list is applied to an interface, all traffic which is not permitted by an access list statement is denied.
35.5.3 Q: What effect does an access list have on router performance? A: An access list can slow down the switching of packets within a router.
35.5.4 Q: How can this be minimised? A: The placement of access list statements is important. Statements which effect large amounts of traffic should be placed towards the top of the access list
35.5.5 Q: How is the order of access list statements set? A: The statements are evaluated in the order that they are entered from the console.
35.5.6 Q: How can I change the order that access list statements are evaluated? A: This requires the deletion of the old access list statements and re- entering of the access-list statements in the new order.
35.5.7 Q: Is there a short cut to this process? A: The process is:- o Perform a show-running configuration command on the router. o Locate the required access list statements in the terminal program buffer. o Copy those statements to notepad or a text editor. o Eliminate the access list statements from the router configuration o Re-order the access list statements in notepad. o Copy the access list statements from notepad. o Paste the access list statements back to the terminal program.
35.5.8 Q: What happens if you do not eliminate the old access list statements? A: The new access list statements are added to the bottom of the old access list statements.
36.0 Links ============== 36.1 Cisco Links --------------------- RFCs ftp://ftpeng.cisco.com/fred/rfc-index/rfc.html
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference (11.3)
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(watch line wrap)
Internetwork Design Guide
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Internetwork Case studies
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Internetwork technology Overview
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Sniffing FAQ
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IANA Home Page
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IETF Home Page
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I have no objection to this FAQ being posted on other sites, I only ask that the claim of copyright not be deleted, the FAQ be posted in its entirety and that it be updated as this FAQ is updated.
>>>---- End Of Part 3 of 3 ---
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David M
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Archive-Name: Certification/Cisco/Frequently Asked Questions
Version: 03:03:02 Part 1 of 3
Revised: 15th February 2003
Posted: Weekly (Thursday)
Title: Part 1 - Introduction
alt.certification.cisco Frequently Asked Questions
==================================================
Index:-
Part 1 - Introduction
=====================
10.0 Statement of objectives
10.1 Newsgroup Charter
11.0 Administrivia
----------------------
11.1 Cisco non-disclosure agreement.
11.2 Cisco Acceptable usage policy.
11.3 Before you post a question.
12.0 What is Cisco accreditation
------------------------------------
12.1 Where do certification holders work?
12.2 Difference MCSE and Cisco certifications?
12.3 Watered Down Certificates
12.4 How many certification holders are there?
12.5 What accreditation is offered?
12.6 Salary Surveys
13.0 Testing
----------------
13.1 Who administers tests
13.2 Where can I find test objectives
13.3 Taking the test
13.4 What is the Passmark?
13.5 When do I know I have passed the test?
13.9 What happens after the test
14.0 Learning resources
---------------------------
14.1 Cisco Connection Online
14.2 How can I get the necessary knowledge?
14.3 Where can I get Cisco training?
14.4 What publications are available?
14.5 Standards (RFC)
14.6 What simulation products are available?
14.7 Testing simulator software
14.8 Study Groups
15.0 Getting practical experience.
--------------------------------------
15.1 Home Lab.
15.2 Work Lab.
15.3 Online Labs.
15.4 Simulation.
16.0 Dealing with Cisco.
----------------------------
16.1 Cisco Connection Online Account
16.2 Q: What are ten things I should know about the Cisco Connection
online
front page?
16.3 Q: Where do I get certification support at Cisco?
17.0 Links
--------------
18.0 Credits
----------------
Part 2 - Certifications
=======================
21.0 Q: What accreditation is offered?
22.0 Q: What is the Network Installation and Support stream?
23.0 Q: What is the Network Installation and Support (WAN) stream?
24.0 Q: What is the Network Engineering and Design stream?
25.0 Q: What is the Network Engineering and Design (WAN) stream?
26.0 Q: What is the Communications and Services stream?
27.0 Q: What are Specialist Designations?
28.0 Q: What are the Cisco Partner Specialisation Exams?
29.0 Entry Level CCNA, CCNA(WAN), CCDA
210.0 Journeyman Level CCIP, CCNP, CCNP(WAN), CCDP
211.0 Professional Level CCIE
212.0 Specializations
213.0 Spare
214.0 The Lost Exams Home
215.0 Cisco Certification Renewal Policy
216.0 Beta Exams
Part 3 - Practical Issues
=========================
31.0 Q: What is involved in a Home Laboratory?
32.0 Router basics.
33.0 Switch Basics.
34.0 Internet Basics
35.0 Access Lists
36.0 Links
================================================================================
10.0 Statement of objectives
====================================
This FAQ is for the newsgroup alt.certification.cisco
The objective of this group is to act as a learning resource for those
wishing
to undertake any of the certification tests offered by Cisco Systems.
It is intended to offer help with those questions associated with Cisco
certification which a person has difficulty, finds obscure or in need of
further
clarification.
It is also intended to help those who seek to reinforce theory by
implementing
networking scenarios associated with that theory.
While everyone on this group likes to look at real life situations,
questions
about these scenarios are better asked in comp.dcom.sys.cisco, the
professional
newsgroup.
Finally it is to act as a community to discuss other issues involved in
gaining
Cisco certification, posting of news, passes and fails, wins and losses,
laughter and sadness, matters serious and silly.
This FAQ is not guaranteed complete, error free or free of bias. The result
represents the sum of general thought on various subjects discussed on the
group over a period of time. Any errors notified will be dealt with as soon
as
possible after notification.
This is intended to be a living document, so please submit new topics as
they
arise. Contributors will be acknowledged.
10.1 Newsgroup Charter
==============================
10.1.1 Where can I find the charter?
A:
10.1.2 What is the charter for this newsgroup?
alt.certification.cisco will be used by those people pursuing IT
certification worldwide on Cisco routing products. This will include
all Cisco-sponsored certifications. The discussions will cover all
topics relevant to Cisco certification, including costs, studying,
study aids, job prospects, and industry outlooks. This is not a
comprehensive list of potential topics. A degree of technical
discussion will be expected, but in-depth discussion should take place
on comp.dcom.sys.cisco.
This newsgroup will be unmoderated and self-policed by the regulars.
Any use deemed appropriate by those using the newsgroup will be
acceptable.
Advertising policy: SPAM will not be tolerated, accepted or
encouraged. The use of proper Netiquette will be expected from all
posters. Crossposting should be limited to and from relevant
newsgroups only. Commercial posting will not be considered
acceptable, unless in response to a specific question.
11.0 Administrivia
======================
11.2 Non-disclosure agreement
---------------------------------
Note:- All people who post to this newsgroup and have passed a
Cisco
exam have signed a strict non-disclosure agreement about the type,
nature and contents of the test questions.
Any Cisco accreditation possessed by anyone who breaks the NDA can
be
withdrawn, which may lead to financial penalty to both the person
breaking the NDA and their employer.
This means that the non-disclosure agreement is usually honored
fairly
strictly and questions submitted to the group which are felt
contrary
to the spirit of the NDA can lead to the questioner being flamed
and/
or ridiculed.
Unless you are wearing your asbestos underwear, this might not be
the
best way to make friends and influence people in this newsgroup.
11.3 Acceptable use policy.
-------------------------------
The use of any Cisco Systems material may be the subject of an
agreement, which must be signed before the material, e.g logo may
be
used.
11.4 Before you post a question.
------------------------------------
Most usenet posts are archived back several years on

A search on this site will allow one to rapidly catch up with
previous
postings and enable you to better define your query.
Many questions and answers have been posted many times before.
12.0 What is Cisco Accreditation?
=====================================
12.1 Q: Which areas of computer networking do holders of Cisco Systems
accreditation work?
A: Implementation of LANs and WANs.
12.2 Q: What is the difference between an operating system qualification
such as the MCSE and Cisco Systems.
12.2.1 A: Operating Systems
Operating system qualifications concentrate predominantly on the
implementation, operation and maintenance of specific operating
systems
on servers and workstations. They treat networking and connectivity
issues in general terms which are sufficient for limited
understanding
of the network connectivity issues which affect the operation of
those
servers and workstations.
Server/Workstation product centered, network implementation
generic.
12.2.2 A: Cisco
Cisco qualifications concentrate mainly on the implementation,
operation and maintenance of Cisco based networks. Operating
systems
are dealt with only to the extent that explain the requirements
placed
on the network by the operating systems of the computer systems
operating over it.
Network product centered, Operating system generic.
12.3 Q: I have heard that CCxx certifications are becoming watered down,
like the MCSE.
12.3.1 The polite Answer.
A: It is a bit circular to discuss the loss of prestige of a
certification due to the increased numbers of holders, on a
newsgroup
dedicated to increasing the numbers of holders of that
certification.
Please encourage those seeking to gain knowledge, discourage those
seeking the less ethical path.
Otherwise :- Please do not feed the Troll.
12.3.2 The not so polite answer.
A: Yes, we heard that too. Perhaps you would be better off posting
this in some other newsgroup. Or, just simply go away.
12.4 Q: How many CCNA/CCNP/CCIE etc. are there?
12.4.1 A: CCNA/CCDA/CCNP/CCDP: The numbers change constantly and are not
publicly released by Cisco on a regular basis.
12.4.2 A: CCIE: Use link below:-
formatting link

12.13 Some Salary Information
--------------------------------
CCNA salaries can be found here:
formatting link
salaries can be found here:
formatting link
salaries can be found here:
formatting link
salaries can be found here:
formatting link
finally CCIE numbers can be found here:
formatting link

I tend to believe these numbers since these numbers are fairly current.
According to the numbers, a CCNA should be making at least $43,000/year as a
bare minimum, depending on geography, and as much as $86,000/year depending
on their level of experience and geographic region. As the chart shows, the
South pays the least money in general, while the East pays the most in
general. This is true of the other Cisco certifications as far as I can
tell.
["N/A" Mar 2001]
13.0 Testing
================
13.1. Who Administers these tests?
-------------------------------------
13.1.1 CCNA, CCNP and CCIE
Sylvan Prometric
VUE
13.1.2 How much do they cost?
Approximately US $100 per test
The CCNP foundation test is US $200
CCIE Qualification test US $300
CCIE Lab test $1250
Comment: for overseas readers of the FAQ, the prices change as the currency
exchange rates vary, so the best source of costing is the local branch of
the
testing organisation close to when the test is booked. (Sylvan Prometric,
Vue
or successor/ competitors)
13.1.3 Where are the tests conducted?
Usually the tests can be taken wherever the testing organisations
have
representatives. Refer to their websites or when booking query the
availability of testing centres at, or near your location.
13.2 Where can I find the objectives of the test?
-----------------------------------------------------
13.2.1 Q: Where can I find the objectives of the test?
A:
formatting link

13.2.2 Q: Do I really have to know ... for the ... test?
A: Technically, if its on the exam objectives published by Cisco,
its fair game for the exam. Of course, each exam concentrates on
specific things, and some things are so basic that you absolutely
*must* know them, such as subnetting and the OSI model. Study the
material and not the test. (JRE)
13.3 Taking the Test
------------------------
13.3.1 Q: Do I need identification when taking the test?
A: You may need several items of identification to sit the test.
Check
tester's website for current retails.
13.3.2 Q: How long have I to complete the test?
A: 65 to 70 minutes.
13.3.3 Q: How many questions do I have to answer?
A: Approximately seventy.
13.3.4 Q: What format are the questions?
The questions are multiformat single and multichoice questions.
Some
additional activities can be expected. Expect radio buttons, check
boxes, text boxes etc. Also with popup boxes for exhibits, drawings
etc. Take advantage of the Sylvan pre-test demonstration before
taking
the actual test.
13.3.5 Q: With check boxes does the exam test that I have checked enough?
A: The exam checks that you have checked enough boxes.
13.3.6 Q: Once I have answered the question can I go back?
A: You are not allowed to go back to previous questions.
13.3.7 Q: Can I take a calculator into the test?
A: No form of calculator is allowed, handheld or windows.
All calculation must be carried out either by mental arithmetic or
using the scratch paper/ media provided by the examination centre.
13.4 What is the passmark?
------------------------------
Cisco revise the tests, the questions and the passmark
periodically.
The passmark at the moment is:-
CCNA2 (640-507) mid 800's (849)(up from low 800's)
CCDA mid 700's (755)
CCNP2 (Various) low to mid 700's for each of the four
tests
CCDP2 (Various) Ditto
Comment(1): Study the material and not the test. Never assume you have a
cushion
to work with. Fight for every answer. (JRE)
Comment(2): Make sure you are learning the material and not memorizing the
test
questions as the questions are drawn from an extensive question bank.
Davidm
13.5 Q: How is the exam marked?
----------------------------------
A: The exam is marked from 300 to 1000. Minimum mark 300.
13.6 Q: When do I know I have passed the test?
--------------------------------------------------
A: The exam is marked at the completion of the test.
A certified copy of your results is available with a breakdown of
your
strengths and weaknesses in the various test areas.
13.9 What happens after I have passed the test?
---------------------------------------------------
13.9.1 Q: How long does it take to transfer my exam results to the Galton
Database?
A: Allow three working days for the results to be transferred to
the
Galton database. Your results can be accessed either initially by
your
testing centre ID number and candidate number, later by Cisco ID
number
and password.
13.9.2 Q: How do I find the Galton database?
A: You can find the Galton database through the Cisco website.
13.9.3 Q: How do I apply for Cisco Logo?
A: Upon access to the Galton site, you can apply for the
appropriate
Cisco Logos for stationery etc. They will be return emailed to you
as
an attachment. Sign necessary licenses when required.
13.9.4 Q: How long does it take to get my documentation package?
A: Allow 6 to 8 weeks for the certificate and wallet card to be
mailed to you. Refer to Cisco site for current information.
13.9.5 Q: Are any other items provided?
A: Tee shirts are no longer available. (Rats!)
14.0 Learning resources
===========================
14.1 Cisco online
---------------------
14.1.1 The prime source of all information on all things Cisco is the
website cisco connection online.
formatting link

14.1.2 It is almost as necessary to be able to use this site as it is to
gain
certification.
14.1.3 Many publications, guides, job aids and equipment manuals are
available
in html or pdf format on this site.
14.2 How can I get the necessary knowledge?
-----------------------------------------------
14.2.1 Q: How can I get the necessary knowledge?
A: The approach to the required training depends on the
individual's
circumstance. It may consist of a mixture of courses, self-study,
work
experience and home laboratory demonstrations.
14.3 Where can I get Cisco training?
----------------------------------------
14.3.1 Cisco training partner
Cisco approved training courses
Advantage:- Short Duration
Disadvantage:- Cost, High pressure.
Intended audience:- Those working in the field with some experience
for a list of training partners
14.3.2 Cisco Network Academy
Comprehensive network education aimed at secondary school students
originated by Cisco. (Year 9-12)
Advantages:- Price (Usually cheap), some hands on prac.
Disadvantage:- Long Duration (1 - 2 Years (4 semesters) for
CCNA)
Intended Audience:-Year 10-12 school students as a technology
elective.
Sometimes post year 12 schools offer this course as part of their
curriculum.
Some schools also offer semesters 5-7 leading to CCNP

14.3.3 Third party training
There are various third party vendors offering training towards the
CCNA in particular.
Advantage:- wider availability
Disadvantage:- Cost, Possible variable quality (Caveat Emptor)
Intended audience:- those to whom a Cisco qualification is
important,
often in association with other IT certifications.
14.3.4 Self Study
Self study is an option as formal classroom study may not be an
option.
Advantage:- No fixed times for study.
Disadvantage:- Need to be disciplined enough to have a firm
timeline
for completion of study.
14.3.4.1 Online Study
Cisco through partners offers online training. Refer Cisco site.
Other vendors may offer similar training.
14.3.4.2 Books/ Hardware/ multimedia
Many books are available for at least the core certifications.
Look to book/ simulation and multimedia presentations as a newer
option.
14.4 What publications are available?
-----------------------------------------
14.4.1 Cisco Press

Cisco press offer several lines of books.
14.4.1.1 Cisco Network Academy Titles
14.4.1.2 Cisco Certification, Various Certificates and Specializations.
Many titles, mostly two books for each test, a course book and
a
study guide.
Course book is a formal presentation of material -if you do
not
have much background.
Certification Guide if you have significant background. They
use
a test/ study material/ test revision like format.
Both if you are obsessed.
14.4.1.3 CCIE Professional Development Library
14.4.1.4 Cisco Professional Publications
Extensive range of books on various network areas.
Valuable for background/ further reading for certifications as
several
of these publications are the basis of parts of courses and
testing.
e.g. Top Down Network Design Priscilla Oppenheimer -
(CCDA/DP)
Internet Routing Architectures Sam Halabi -
(BSCN)
14.4.1.5 Cisco IOS Documentation
Most of this is available on the Cisco website, but is in edited
hard
copy for those who find they need it.
14.4.2 Sybex

Certification books are by Tod Lammle and various co-authors.
14.4.3 Mcgraw-Hill

Several lines of books, some certification related some not.
Main author of certification texts is Snygrass et al.
14.4.4 Others
Various other publishers offer books
14.5 Standards
------------------
The standards for the internet are the RFCs. Complete copies of the
relevant RFCs are freely available from various sites on the
internet,
including Cisco, in text format and without charge.
RFCs
14.6 What simulation products are available
-----------------------------------------------
14.6.1 Q: Where can I find a good router simulator?
A: "Never used one myself, but I think these are popular:
formatting link

formatting link
" (JRE)
14.7 Testing simulator software etc.
----------------------------------------
14.7.1 Q: Where can I download the Boson tests/cracks?
A: They are $30, how cheap can you be? Go buy them. (JRE)
formatting link

14.7.2 Q: How good are Transcenders for Cisco tests?
A: The general opinion of the group is that they are of limited
use.
The Cisco question banks are too large and diverse, to pass the
exam on
memorizing questions alone.
14.8 Groups
---------------------
14.8.1 Study Group
14.8.1.1 Q: What is a study group
14.8.1.2 Q: What are the advantages of belonging to a study group?
A:
14.8.1.3 Q: What are the disadvantages of belonging to a study group?
A:
14.8.2 Users Group
14.8.2.1 Q: What is a Users Group
A:
14.8.2.1 Q: What are the advantages of belonging to a Users Group.
A: From The South Carolina Users Group home page.
"Technology updates - we want to keep up with the latest in technology
Networking with networkers - we want to maintain contact with those in the
Carolinas who are doing networking
Encourage Certifications - we want to support and encourage certification
achievement" South Carolina Users Group
14.8.2.2 Q: What are the disadvantages of belonging to a Users Group
A:
15.0 Getting practical experience
=====================================
15.0 Network Lab
--------------------
Most people find it necessary to have at least some practical
experience implementing some of the concepts on the various exam
syllabi. This means purchasing equipment, using spare equipment at
work, the use of online laboratories or simulation.
15.1 Home Lab.
------------------
15.1.1 Q: What reason would someone want a Home Lab?
A: A home lab is useful to demonstrate concepts which come up on
the
job, at school, or through study. It is also useful to get
experience
in areas where you might not otherwise get it.
15.1.2 Q: What is the main limit on the size of a home lab?
A: The prime limit on the size of a home lab is the cost, followed
by
the need to find space to store the equipment.
15.1.3 Q: What are the challenges faced by someone building a home lab?
A: For those buying equipment, the challenge is to implement as
many
concepts as possible without buying sufficient equipment for a
large
ISP. Most buy secondhand, from online auctions etc.
15.1.4 Q: What are the disadvantages of a home lab?
A: The two main disadvantages of a home lab are the cost and the
pending obsolescence of equipment purchased. Plus there is the ever
present problem of needing just one more piece of equipment to
complete
a project.
15.1.5 Q: What else can I expect from a home lab?
A: The ability to go further than study and trying out concepts to
develop solutions to networking problems.
15.2 Using equipment at work.
---------------------------------
15.2.1 Q: What are the advantages of using equipment at work?
A: Using equipment at work has the advantage of working with
current
equipment, or recently de-commissioned equipment. If a good
development
lab is available, it is a great advantage.
15.2.2 Q: What are the disadvantages of using equipment at work?
A: If there is limited chance to gain the range of experience
required
- then it is necessary to supplement this work experience with home
labs.
15.3 Online Labs
--------------------
Various locations on the web offer access to various switches and
routers for configuration practice. Search either in the group or
via
search engine to locate such a facility. These may either be free
or
require a fee for use.
15.4 Using simulated networks
---------------------------------
15.4.1 Q: What Does Simulation Offer?
A: Simulation offers mixed switch and router configuration
exercises.
15.4.2 Q: What are the advantages of simulation?
A: The advantage of simulation is that a number of configuration
exercises involving a number of items of equipment can be performed
without the need to purchase equipment and deal with IOS versions.
15.4.3 Q: What are the disadvantages of Simulation?
A: Simulation is limited in that only a subset of the configuration
commands are implemented. This limits the simulation essentially to
the exercises.
"Never used one myself, but I think these are popular:

" (JRE)

16.0 Dealing with Cisco
===========================
16.1 Q: How do I get access to CCO?
---------------------------------------
A: Either buy a service contract on a piece of Cisco hardware, or
sign
up for their consultant program.
The whole website is CCO.
Casual users - those who don't have an account have access to the
extensive public areas.
Those who have an account have access to further private areas.
To gain an account to these areas you must be:-
1/ An equipment owner with a maintenance contract. (Smartnet)
2/ A retailer signed up under retailer program
3/ A system consultant signed up under consultant program
4/ CCIE.
5/ Cisco employee
Areas include IOS images, bug fixes and updates.
16.2 Q: What are ten things I should know about the Cisco Connection
online
front page?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Cisco home page has a number of web components. These are a text search
box, drop down selection boxes, straight HTML links and a number of
pushbuttons.
Virtually every component on the Cisco home page will take you to an area of
the Cisco Website.
16.2.1 Q: What is the component which does not have a link attached?
A: The component which does not have a link is the "Cisco
Connection
Online" text at the top right.
16.2.2 Q: What happens if I click my mouse on the Cisco logo?
A: Double clicking on the Cisco Systems logo takes you to the LOGO
page.
Information on the various Cisco logos, how to obtain them and the
usage thereof is obtained by clicking on the Cisco Logo.
16.2.3 Q: How do I search the Cisco Website?
The type in text box enables a search of the Cisco site. Type in
the
keywords referring to the information you want to find in the text
box
and either enter or click the "Go" Button with the mouse.
for example "password recovery" and a model number will enable you
to
search for the password recovery technique for a specific router.
16.2.4 Q: What is the purpose of the row of text under the logo at the top
right?
A: The coloured text lines under the large text "Cisco Connection
Online" on the white background takes you directly into areas of
the
Website.
The Components are:-
How to Buy (Orange) Connects you to information on the dealer
network.
Login (Green) Logs you in if you have an account.
Register (White) Is how you register for an account.
Map/Help (White) Is the way to get help about using the website
Countries/ Languages (White) Enable you to change the language of the CCO
home page.
Mouse clicking on Countries/Languages at the end of the line
enables
you to change the home page language.
Within the large box with the white background,
-----------------------------------------------
16.2.5 Q: What does the "Solutions for your Network" selection box do?
A: This selection box takes you to specific network solutions.
16.2.6 Q: What does the "Products and Technologies" selection box do?
A: This selection box takes you to product categories.
For example to find product information on routers, click onto the
selection box and select routers from the options.
16.2.7 Q: What are the properties of the text in this box?
A: The rest of this box consists of hypertext links.
For example clicking on the phrase "Certification and Training"
takes
you to the directly to the certification and training home page.
The RED text takes you to the home page for a specific area.
The BLUE text takes you to lower level home pages. Many of these
pages
consist again of hypertext links which enable you to drill down
further
into the site.
For greater impact there are a number of buttons with legends on top which
will
take you to parts of the Cisco Website that are the subject of special
attention. These are on the blue background to the right of the webpage.
16.2.8 Q: What are the properties of the "News@Cisco" graphic?
A: The "News @ Cisco" graphic will take you to the press releases.
A specific press release has a link from within this graphic.
16.2.9 Q: What are the properties of the text in the middle of the blue
box?
A: The three text components under this which are separated by
horizontal lines are links to areas of the Website.
16.2.10 Q: What are the properties of the grapics on the lower right?
A: The three graphic boxes under this are pushbuttons which will
again
take you to areas of the Website which correspond to the legend on
the
pushbutton.
16.3 Q: Where do I get certification support at Cisco?
----------------------------------------------------------
A:
(You will have to arrange an account)
Anyone interested in Cisco certification SHOULD get an account.
16.2 Q: What difference does this make with dealing with Cisco?
A: With the introduction of this service on the Cisco site, Cisco
have
stopped providing certification answers by telephone and have made
this
the main way of contact on these matters.
Question by email is only available after researching the FAQ style
questions on this site.
16.3.3 Q: Are any Fees Charged?
A: No fees are charged.

16.3.4 Q: Is a Cisco ID number required?
A: Despite being very prominent, the Cisco ID number is optional
and
not required - If you don't have one there is no problem opening an
account.
16.3.5 Q: What is the only thing really required?
A: The only thing really required is an email account name as ID.
16.3.6 Q: What is it that I need to know about opening an account?
A: The Cisco site seems to set a cookie on opening an account. When
you
go back, you don't have to re-enter your ID.
17.0 Links
==============
17.0 Newsgroup Charter
---------------------------
17.1 alt.certification.cisco FAQ
-------------------------------------
Michael N. Rubino
Keith T. Williams
Bob Connor
(Old)
17.2 Usenet archive
------------------------
formatting link

If you want to look at any past posts, including the FAQ, use the URL,
17.4 Cisco Links
---------------------
RFCs ftp://ftpeng.cisco.com/fred/rfc-index/rfc.html
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference (11.3)
(watch line wrap)
Internetwork Design Guide
Internetwork Case studies
Internetwork technology Overview
17.5 JREs Links
Here's a partial of my favorites (in no particular order):
formatting link

formatting link

formatting link

---JRE---
17.9 Odd Links
-------------------
Sniffing FAQ
IANA Home Page
IETF Home Page
18.0 Credits
================
Originator "J. R. Ford" snipped-for-privacy@home.com
This version "davidm" snipped-for-privacy@hotmail.com
Contributions:-
JRE "NoOneYouKnow" snipped-for-privacy@SpammersSuckBigTime.Com
Bob Connor
CCIE Information:-
Unknown psion1
Salary Information
"N/A"
Access Lists and RFC addresses
Paul J Murphy
Proofreading:-
Chris Sherlock
Authur Raymond
I have received notice that some people have put the FAQ on their websites.
Michael N. Rubino
Keith T. Williams


If you want to look at any past posts, including the FAQ, use the URL,
I have no objection to this FAQ being posted on other sites, I only ask that
the claim of copyright not be deleted, the FAQ be posted in its entirety and
that it be updated as this FAQ is updated.
>>>---- End Of Part 1 of 3 ---
Reply to
David M
Archive-Name: Certification/Cisco/Frequently Asked Questions Version: 03:04:06 Part 2 of 3 Date: 1st November 2003 Posted: Weekly (Thursday) Title: Part 2 - Certifications
Status: Interm Release 1 CCNA/CCDA/CCNP/CCDP Upgraded 1st Nov 03
Index:-
Part 1 - Introduction =====================
10.0 Statement of objectives 11.0 Administrivia 12.0 What is Cisco accreditation 13.0 Testing 14.0 Learning resources 15.0 Getting practical experience. 16.0 Dealing with Cisco. 17.0 Links 18.0 Credits
Part 2 - Certifications ======================= 21.0 What accreditation is offered? 22.0 Network Installation and Support 23.0 24.0 Network Engineering and Design 25.0 26.0 Communications and Services 27.0 Specialist Designations 28.0 Cisco Partner Specialization Exams
29.0 Entry Level CCNA, CCNA(WAN), CCDA -------------------- 29.1 CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Updated 1st Nov. 29.2 Deleted 29.3 CCDA Cisco Certified Design Associate Updated 1st Nov.
210.0 Professional Level CCIP, CCNP, CCNP(WAN), CCDP ------------------------- 210.1 CCNP Cisco Certified Network Professional Updated 1st 210.2 Deleted 210.3 CCDP Cisco Certified Design Professional Updated 1st Nov. 210.4 Deleted 210.5 CCIP Cisco Certified Internetwork Professional
211.0 Expert Level CCIE --------------------- 211.0 Changes to CCIE examinations 211.1 Q: What is required to obtain the CCIE qualification? 211.2 Q: Where is the best place to look for current CCIE Information? 211.3 Q: Is there more than one type of CCIE? 211.4 Q: What is involved in the Qualifying examination? 211.5 Q: What is involved in scheduling the hands on evaluation? 211.6 Q: If I decide that I want to change my CCIE designation to another one do I have to take another written or can I just change? 211.7 Recertification 211.8 What happens If I do not re-certify? 211.9 Q: What is involved with retired CCIE Designations? 211.10 Q: What are the benefits awarded by Cisco for becoming a CCIE?
212.0 Specializations 213.0 Spare 214.0 The Lost Exams Home 215.0 Cisco Certification Renewal Policy 216.0 Beta Exams
Part 3 - Practical Issues ========================= 31.0 What is involved in a Home Laboratory? 32.0 Router basics. 33.0 Switch Basics. 34.0 Internet Basics 35.0 Access Lists 36.0 Links
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21.0 Q: What certification is offered? ------------------------------------------ Current information is available on the Cisco connection online website
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The Cisco certifications have been grouped in the following groupings
22.0 Q: What is the Network Installation and Support stream? ---------------------------------------------------------------- 22.1 Associate level CCNA 22.2 Professional level CCNP 22.3 Expert level CCIE (Routing and Switching)
23.0 Q: -----------
24.0 Q: What is the Network Engineering and Design stream? -------------------------------------------------------------- 24.1 Associate Level CCDA 24.2 Professional Level CCDP 24.3 Expert Level No expert level qualification offered.
25.0
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