Telecom Archives Reprint - Prison Phone Technology

Ten years ago in this column, I printed an essay from Tom Farley on the topic of Prison Phone Technology. On a cold, damp, Saturday night here (winter has _finally_ come to Independence this year, it seems) I thought it might be a fun item to review again, especially for our readers who were not even on line here ten years ago.

Date: Wed, 2 Oct 1996 16:00:46 -0400 (EDT) From: (TELECOM Digest Editor) Subject: Prison Phone Technology

Tom Farley is another great member of our online community who writes a print journal from time to time known as {Private Line}. I shared his most recent issue with Digest readers recently and now I have another excellent report from Tom, this time on telephones in prisons.

Without wasting any more bandwidth, let's read it!


From: Tom Farley Subject: Prison Phone Technology Date: Wed, 2 Oct 96 14:31:56 -0500 Organization: Delphi ( email, 800-695-4005 voice)

Hello, Pat. Here's something from my latest e-zine. I can e-mail people a copy of the ezine although it should be up at

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Best wishes, Tom Farley IV. AN INTRODUCTION TO PRISON PHONE TECHNOLOGY-- by Tom Farley -- -- http:// A. A brief overview B. Three different call processing approaches 1. Class of service approach 2. Generic switch utilizing custom software a. Close up of one switch: NACT's 120LCX 3. Dedicated system using PC technology 4. Typical Call processors' anti-fraud features a. Call blocking on a permanent basis b. Call blocking on an as needed basis c. Limiting long distance carriers d. Flash hook prevention e. Rotary dial acceptance f. Limiting automated message attempts g. Conference call prevention C. The federal Inmate Telephone System (ITS) 1. Introduction 2. Letter from jail 3. Discussion and speculation 4. Federal Bureau of Prison (B.OP.) Time Line 5. Discussion continues 6. ITS Account Report 7. A report on ITS from Jail 8. Real short conclusion 9. Bibliography A. General Overview The prison phone business is big and getting bigger. At least

50,000 inmate phones now exist with more being added all the time. By comparison, colleges account for 60,000 public phones and hotels and motels 80,000. [1] Phone companies pay big commissions to states and counties to service the rapidly growing prison market. The decades old practice of letting inmates call collect to any number they wish is now being replaced by allowing collect calling or direct dialing to pre-selected numbers. Just how that is accomplished is the focus of this article. Prison phone systems come in a bewildering number of shapes and sizes. County, state and some Federal prisons configure their operations for their requirements, consequently, there are no standards, much like all PBX's vary widely in features and operating methods. But like PBX's, there are some features common to all "inmate call control technologies." At the very least, a prison phone system uses a call processor to approve and place the call, surveillance equipment to monitor it, and recording equipment to archive the conversation. Only smaller counties and, curiously, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, "the largest state prison system on earth, still unlock the cells and let prisoners use a phone on someone's desk, a la Barney Fife." (2) In past years prisoners could call collect to anyone they wished. The new trend, though, is toward allowing direct or collect calls to pre-approved numbers. The most controversial approach is a pre-approved number scheme, as practiced by the federal Inmate Telephone System (ITS). But before we look at ITS, let's look at the technology state and county prisons use to process automated collect calls. B. Three approaches to call processing While line based call blocking is an effective solution for some facilities, most county and state prisons use a call processor to approve and place calls. There are two approaches. The first method employs a pre-existing switch using custom software written for the prison industry and quite often for the individual facility itself. Switch based platforms excel at supporting the greatest number of ports (sometimes to 8,000). The other approach uses a dedicated system based on PC or microprocessor technology. PC-based platforms shine at providing flexibility. Figure on stand alone switches costing from $160,000 to $700,000, compared to PC- platforms starting around $60,000 with only 96 ports or 48 channels. [3] Let's first look at what a telco can do and then we'll look at call processors. 1. Class of service approach Large and small telcos offer many kinds of call blocking to institutions. The advantage is simplicity. Order from your local phone company and pay by the month. Pacific Bell calls their two offerings the "COPT (Customer Owned Pay Telephone) Inmate Line" and the "COPT Inmate Collect Only Line." [4] The COPT Inmate Line is a low security offering, with only 900/976 and international direct distance dialing (IDDD) permanently blocked. 'O+' calls are screened for collect only. All other calls, including local, '411', '611' , '911' '0-' (operator dialed) and so on must be blocked with customer owned equipment. Their COPT Inmate Collect Only Line, by comparison, costs more but blocks all of the above calls, at least over Pacific Bell's network. Line based call blocking may be good to have, however, it can't replace a prison's call processor. 2. Generic switch using custom software. Switches like the Summa Four, Excell, Harris 20/20 are often used to managing prison calls. National Applied Computer Technology (NACT), for example, sells a switch called the LCX 120C switching system. [4] It's a tandem digital switch, often used by long distance carriers, prepaid calling card sellers, payphone route handlers and other service providers. The 120C is a medium to large trunk switch, capable of putting long distance traffic out to the toll network without going through the local central office first. It's a generic switch, therefore, with software making the difference. NACT is heavily involved in the correctional industry. Let's look a little more closely at this switch, since it is so often used in prisons and other high fraud locations. a. Close up of one switch: NACT's LCX120C Although I do not have the name of the operator, a NACT LCX120C is currently operated by a company which manages or owns over 2,500 COCOTs in New York City. 1+, 0+ and 0- calls are processed through the switch and all traffic is scrutinized by NACT's proprietary Control and Validation Unit (CVU). Most software, by the way, is developed in "C". NACT claims fraud losses will drop from 20% on average to 0.5 percent and the return on investment for this operator was only six weeks. Perhaps. The cabinet housing the switch stands three feet tall and two feet wide. A clear plexiglass door covers the electronic bay housing the electronics. Two 125 cfm fans keep the air moving. The control and validation unit (CVU) stands at the top of the assembly. The CVU is the primary processor, equipped with dual 330/520 MB hardrives and a 250 MB cartridge tape drive. Using older but serviceable technology, the processor is an MC680x0, utilizing 8 megs of ram and drawing on a 400 watt power supply. The CVU does validation and controls the trunk control unit (TCU) below it. Up to four trunk control units can be supported, each TCU controlling 120 ports (60 talk paths). The TCUs contain "processor and trunk control cards to handle line signalling, send/receive digits, and interface with the CPU." Each TCU utilizes a "realtime industrial processor", 128 Kb of RAM, 80 KB of ROM and a 300 watt power supply. An uninteruuptible power supply sits below the TCU and a remote diagnostics system, with a modem, of course, sits below that.[5] Add an administration workstation and a printer and you're ready to roll. 2. Dedicated system using PC technology The other approach to prison call processing uses a dedicated system, often based on PC or microprocessor hardware. Such a beast will use a 486 processor or a Pentium, typically running under DOS rather than UNIX. TELEQUIP, CPDI and others use this approach. [6] TELEQUIP's ACP-4000 (Automated Call Processor (R)) is marketed just to correctional facilities. That might make it simpler to install. TELEQUIP boasts that "ACP installation is the easiest in the industry. No wall space or card racks! Simple plug-and-play is standard. Set the ACP anywhere on-site, connect one cable to a 66 block, plug in the power and your ACP is processing inmate calls!" [7] Wonderful. N.A.C.T., by comparison, says six weeks are required to install their switch. TELEQUIP says their equipment services 8,000 prison lines and six state contracts. That's a pretty large slice of the prison pie. But for variety, let's take a look at CPDI's offering to get an idea of a PC-platform based switch. b. Close up look at a PC-based switch CPDI's PC-switch approach is typical. It relies on a file server, a card processor, a workstation, Dialogic telephone interface cards, a Novel local area network, a hub and some proprietary software. [8] The file server is actually a souped up PC, a computer with file management software, voice boards for prompts and a big hard drive. T1 lines usually terminate directly into the card processors. Each processor supports 48 ports or 24 channels. A tape backup and a hard drive backup are usually standard, indeed, a redundant file server is often used in case of failure. The administration workstation may have a modem and a dial up remote access port. So what do these two kinds of systems have in common? Plenty, especially when it comes to anti-fraud features. 3. Call processors' anti-fraud features Many state and county prison calls are dialed collect from a pre-approved list. Allowing and supervising calls from hundreds or possibly thousands of prisoners at an institution requires a fraud resistant automated collect calling system. Everett Castor, switch operations manager for N.A.C.T says "You can't possibly simulate in a lab everything an inmate can think to do." [9] Here's a list of features a modern processor may have: a. Call blocking on a permanent basis -- Most inmates are not allowed to talk to a live operator of any sort. In addition, 700, 800, 900 and 950 services are all permanently blocked. "Country codes, information digits, NPAs (area codes), third party numbers" can also be shut down. b. Call blocking on an as needed basis -- Inmates and their compatriots are notorious for their ability to find home phone numbers of guards, wardens and family members of same. Witnesses, judges and many others are also targets. Most systems accommodate nearly limitless amounts of non-dialable numbers. This does not prevent a third party, though, from manually bridging a call. c. Limiting long distance carriers -- Most systems now use one carrier, keeping inmates from switching, for better or worse, to another LD provider.' [10] d. Flash hook prevention -- keeps inmates from breaking out of of a call and dialing a new number. [11] This was a problem with older analog processors which were built along PBX lines. e. Rotary dial acceptance -- Some systems allow a rotary dialed party to signal collect acceptance by holding the line, however, this normally requires the switch to be programmed for this ahead of time. f. Limiting automated message attempts -- Like many of us, inmates try to send coded messages with an automated collect system. This feature limits attempts to a certain number within a certain amount of time, keyed to the inmates' account number. g. Reverse battery supervision -- Disables keypad after destination number is dialed. Prevents fun and games and possibly getting a new dial tone. Pressing different buttons on the keypad while an automated collect system worked may have allowed an unrestricted dial tone in older systems. [12] h. Three way call prevention -- TELEQUIP claims near 100% 3-way call prevention with their patented ACP processor. They go on to say that AT&T's Inmate Processing System deters only 93% of such attempts. I do not see how manually bridging a call can be stopped. It is also possible that call forwarding or foreign exchange circuits could circumvent this. i. Call limitations -- allows an institution to limit calls by length, billing type, dollar amount and so on. May prevent a huge bill from being placed to a subscriber who has no intention of paying. D. The Federal Inmate Telephone System (ITS) 1. An introduction The Federal Bureau of Prisons (B.O.P.) incarcerates approximately 100,000 prisoners at 84 institutions across the country. Fully a quarter of that population are foreign nationals, willing and often able to spend big bucks to call home. This captive market might seem ideal for private competition, with hundreds of long distance companies bidding for a Federal contract. Oddly enough, though, the U.S. still carries calls themselves over the government's normal FTS2000 network. That's composed of, essentially, heavily discounted Sprint lines. (Local telephone companies handle local calls). [13] A new contract, however, will be awarded for this traffic due to a court settlement, indeed, a whole new inmate telephone system will be developed in the next year or two. For now, though, the B.O.P. continues to manage things their own way. So what's going on here? And what kind of technology do the Feds use to process these calls? Before we answer those questions, though, let's take a break and look at the letter that got this article started: 2. Letter from jail March 12, 1996 private line journal P.O. Box 1059 Isleton, CA Re: A "Beseeching", of sorts . . . As may be evident, I am currently incarcerated within a federal correctional center in Coleman, Florida. I have been placed in this hell hole due to ideas run-afoul . . . I am here for wire fraud. It seems that I may have gotten ahead of myself in that I "accidentally" wired money from a corporation's account that I neither worked for, nor had the authorization to be meddling with. Never-the-less, some funds, as I said before, "accidentally" ended up in my account (which was opened in another name, by the way -- I am not totally lame!). Anyhow, I would hope that I may be able to convince you to send me a couple of your back issues, or better yet, a subscription to your fine journal? I await your reply with high hopes. name withheld 3. Discussion Damn that wire fraud! Turns out our man is the author of, appropriately enough, _Credit Card Fraud and Toll Fraud Issues_, a slim tome detailing how "scam artists can take advantage of you without your knowledge." Great. In any case, I sent him a copy of _private line_ and he replied with all sorts of interesting information on the Inmate Telephone System. ITS is a switch based system controlled by a UNIX workstation at 41 federal penitentiaries. I doubt a switch sits at each facility, however, that is certainly possible. But remember, a switch like a N.A.C.T. can sit anywhere in the United States and take calls. The traffic simply has to be routed to it. You could even own a switch and have it located at N.A.C.T.'s headquarters in Utah, just so that it gets around the clock attention. It would be natural, though, that some sort of G.T.E. switching is employed since G.T.E. helped develop I.T.S. Maybe in Texas? Collect calls that are authorized use AT&T's automated collect call program. [14] In accordance with a settlement last year, "prison officials have now agreed to tie their rates to those of state prisons, which are controlled by state utility boards."[15] That might cut down on complaints about high costs, especially overseas calls. Rates like $9.99 a minute to Vietnam were not uncommon. Even domestic calls are sufficiently high that a foreign exchange circuit may be less expensive to arrange rather than paying for direct dialing. (I've paid as high as 61 cents a minute to accept an ITS call from Florida in the middle of the day.) Whether the ITS officer in each prison would allow this is a whole different question, since the whole system is in flux and because each facility is allowed a great deal of leeway in deciding its rules. As an example 38 facilities allow only direct dialing to pre-approved numbers, 28 still provide direct calling only and 18 provide both. The settlement does allow 120 minutes of collect calling to all inmates, no matter what the policy is at a particular institution. Anti-fraud features are basically the same as noted under '3' above. 3-way calling is definitely frowned upon. As one prisoner notes "the ITS system (through GTE/OPUS's proprietary specialized programming) detects such calls in real time, cuts off the inmate- caller, flags the inmates PAC and records the telephone number the inmate was connected to during the 3-way calling attempt."[16] The Bureau of Prisons originated the Inmate Telephone System in 1990, implemented part of it through 1993 and watched as it fell apart in 1995. ITS lingers on at many institutions, but only until the entire system is scrapped after a new contract is awarded. That may take another year to let. Maybe two. The cornerstone of the system, direct dialing to pre-approved numbers has been heavily modified. The funding method, whereby the B.O.P. raided an inmate welfare fund to install the system, without having to officially publish their rules or intent, has been crushed, with Federal officials having returned $4,000,000 in mis-appropriated funds. What a mess. Take a look at the time line that follows: 4. Federal Bureau of Prison (B.OP.) Time Line Pre-1973 -- Each institution's warden sets phone policy 1973 -- B.O.P. sets uniform national phone policy 6/29/1979 -- B.O.P. issues final Rule (44FR 38249) for policy 6/1/1983 -- B.O.P. amends 1979 rule (44FR 24622) 1990 -- B.O.P. conceives Inmate Telephone System 1991 -- GTE & OPUS begins installing ITS at certain prisons. 4/1992 -- B.O.P. starts charging AT&T rates plus 75 cents a call. 7/1993 -- An anonymous LD carrier sponsors class action suit against B.O.P. 8/1993 -- B.O.P. stops installing ITS after 41 facilities due to court injunction. 4/1994 -- B.O.P. admits official policy not often practiced. 4/1994 -- AT&T submits unsolicited bid to develop new system. 4/1994 -- Final rule published in the Congressional Record. 5/1995 -- Mediation begins, seeking to resolve problems. 8/2/95 -- Settlement reached. 5. Discussion continues ITS was supposedly implemented to provide better security and to enable prisoners to better account for their money. The security angle seems spurious in light of existing call processors that offer excellent results. Money management seems odd as well. Direct dialing meant that prisoners needed to pay for calls out of their prison accounts. Yet B.O.P. officials would often take money sent by relatives and friends to cover phone expenses, in order to recover other debts owed by the prisoner. Endless arguments and excitement followed. Prisoners thought long distance costs were too high. Long distance companies felt shut out and the courts were also unhappy. Without going further into the history and machinations of all of this, [17] let's look at how ITS works in practice. Before we get an account from a _private line_ reader in jail, though, let's look at what a typical account report looks like, just so we get familiar with the terms. A register number, by the way, is like a prisoner's serial number . . .: 6. ITS Account Report Inmate Telephone Account Report FCI LFREEH Page 1of 1 Report Date Jan. 12, 1996 12:12 /dev/ttyi1f Register Inmate Phone Access Date Number Name Code Entered 03496823 Louis Freeh 478274228 25-FEB-96 Inmate Dialing Instructions Inmate Telephone System (ITS) To place:

-- A Local Call: 1. Listen for the dial tone. 2. Enter the seven digit telephone number. 4. Enter your Phone Access Code (PAC). Example: 555-1234-478274228

-- A Long Distance Call: 1. Listen for the dial tone. 2. Enter 1, area code and telephone number. 4. Enter your Phone Access Code (PAC). Example: 1-202-555-1234-478274228

-- An International Call: 1. Listen for the dial tone. 2. Enter 011, country code and telephone number. 4. Enter your Phone Access Code (PAC). Example: 011-24-335937-478274228 To obtain your ITS account balance and the cost of your last call: I. Listen for the dial tone. 2. Enter 118, then enter your Phone Access Code (PAC). Example 118-478274228

----------------------------------------------------- 7. A report on ITS from Jail A hacker at Lompoc writes _private line_ to say: "ITS is pretty crappy. All my phone numbers have to be submitted to my counselor prior to calling (up to 30 numbers). In a few days the numbers are verified and put on my phone list. Each inmate is assigned a 10 digit pin when they first arrive. The phones are like those information phones at airports. They're all in a row, about 25 of them with the small partition dividing each phone. I don't know if it's important but the handsets all smell like shit. When the handset is lifted you are greeted by a standard dialtone. After you dial the number you get a second dialtone. Then you enter the PIN and wait for validation. The whole system is pretty Mickey Mouse and the cross talk is almost unbearable. Throughout your conversation you can hear DTMF tones from the neighboring phones. Each call is limited to 15 minutes but you can call back immediately if no one is waiting. When you get down to your final minute they drop carrier for a split second to warn you have 15 seconds left. If a foreign dialtone or ring is detected you are dropped immediately. This is to prevent people from three-waying phone calls. It's easily corrected if the receiving party places a call, waits for an answer and then bridges the call. All calls are monitored, most likely recorded, in case you conspire to commit another crime over the phone. The Feds are always looking for a new indictment. Everything is handled by a machine they have on the compound. It's some UNIX box that treats each phone as /dev/???. [18] The only numbers you can dial are those on your approved phone list. Thereby eliminating the problem of people stealing kodez!, or dialing any unauthorized numbers. ("O", 911, 800's, 700's, etc.) Basically, it's run by a script . . . a person can pretty much write the whole ITS in modem commands. The system's primary concern is security with inmate's phone calls as a secondary function. The rates are similar to calling card rates, a call to L.A. costs me $3.75 for 15 minutes. Interestingly it costs the same to Sacramento . . ." 8. Real short conclusion ITS seems like some bureaucrats 'better idea' gone seriously astray. B.O.P's Request will be interesting to watch for in the next year or so. They'll need to specify what kind of system they want so that companies can bid on it. Lots of technical details should be included. My guess is that they will go with more conventional equipment and techniques -- I'm unsure if they can build on ITS technology, no matter how well it works, since GTE and OPUS's approach is proprietary. Hmm. Got any more information or personal experience with prison phones? Send it in and I'll print it here. 9. --Bibliography-- [1] "Long Distance Runaround" _New York Newsday_ Michael Moss, May 14, 1995 [2] 'Dialing For Dollars: Taxpayers Could Win Big With Prison Pay Phones' _John Sharp Opinions and Editorials_ Undated :( John Sharp, State Comptroller of Public Accounts

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(5k) [3] "Calling Card Platforms -- The Intelligence Behind The Cards" Ed Metcalf _Premier Telecard_ December 1995-January 1996 28 (+1(805) 547-8500 for Premier) [4] Pacific Bell. For questions, try +1(415) 452-7455 [5] National Applied Computer Technology, 744 South 400 East, Orem, Utah 84058 (801) 225-6248 FAX (801) 224-8456 [6] TELEQUIP Labs Inc., 1820 N. Greenville Ave., Suite 100 RIchardson, TX 75801 1(800) 329-3290; Communications Product Development Incorporated 915 Broadway, Suite 100 Vancouver, WA

98660 (360) 694-2977 FAX (360) 694-2553 [7] TELEQUIP advertisement _Public Communications_ Volume 11, No. 4 April, 1995 49. This ad extols the virtues of their patented switch. This means you could do a patent search and read all about it. Consult _private line_ No. 4 (Volume 2, No. 1 January/February 1995) for my lengthy article on patent searching. [8] "Calling Card Platforms -- The Intelligence Behind The Cards" ibid. [9] "LCX 120C A Success In Camden County Correctional Facility," _CCQ-Correctional Communications Quarterly_ April, 1994. I have a reprint of this article, as supplied by N.A.C.T., however, I have no further information on _CCQ._ [10] "Letter from Prison" _2600_ Winter 1992-93 (Volume Nine Number Four )13 [11] CCQ ibid. [12] Letter to the Editor by C. Rebel _2600_ Autumn 1990 (Volume 7, Number 3) 29 [13] "Federal Prison Telephone Plan Stuck on Hold" _Legal Times_ Naftali Bendavid May, 22 1995 Well researched and balanced article on ITS issues. +1(457-0686) 1730 'M' Street N.W., Suite 802 Washington, D.C. 20036 [14] Each time I've accepted a collect call from ITS the automated voice announces "AT&T". [15] "Plaintiffs, Feds Connect in Settlement; Inmates Laud Deal Over Prison Phones" _Legal Times_ Naftali Bendavid August 14, 1995 Follow on to the article in 13 above. [16] name withheld -- Personal correspondence [17] B.O.P.'s point of view is contained in the Federal Code of Regulations: 28 CFR 540 -- Telephone Regulations and Financial Responsibility. Or look it up in the April 4, 1994 Federal Register. It's the Big Kahuna of ITS documents, as far as rules, regs and explanations go. Not much technical info, however, you may want to look it up under this candidate for the longest URL:
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[18] Peter Shipley offers this explanation of /dev/???: A /dev/ is a path to a device kind of like COM1, COM2 and LPT1 under DOS. Think of COM1 as \\dev\\COM1 on your DOS box and if you do a dir or c:\\dev you will see a listing of cards and services you have on your system, eg: (I made this list up) c:> dir \\dos COM1 0 09-09-96 5:47p COM2 0 09-09-96 5:47p LPT1 0 09-09-96 5:47p SOUND BST 0 09-09-96 5:48p MOUSE MS 0 09-09-96 5:48p SVGA 0 09-09-96 5:48p KBD 0 09-09-96 5:48p SCSIDISK 1 0 09-09-96 5:48p SCSIDISK 2 0 09-09-96 5:48p SCSITAPE 1 0 09-09-96 5:48p SCSIROM 1 0 09-09-96 5:48p FLOPPY 1 0 09-09-96 5:48p FLOPPY 2 0 09-09-96 5:48p ---------------------------------------------

[TELECOM Digest Editor's 1996 Note: Tom, thank you *very much* for sharing this. This article will become a permanent file in the Telecom Archives. Watch for it there soon. PAT]

[TELECOM Digest Editor's Note: Has the system changed very much, or is it still as described? I do know that even from our local jail here in Independence, accepting a collect call from an inmate -- the only way the person call call -- is _quite_ expensive. PAT]
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